The main difference between hypnosis and general state of consciousness is the appearance of hypnosis. During the deepening phase the hypnotist usually triggers some hypnosis to convince the patient that he has been hypnotized. Hypnosis is made up of many hypnotic phenomena, but each of them may be different, so it is impossible to define hypnosis simply by one or more of them. Understanding each hypnotic phenomenon one by one is an important basis for learning hypnosis. The common classical hypnotic phenomena are as follows:
(1) Hallucinations (Including the illusion of positive and negative) :
Hallucinations can occur in any sensory system such as sight, hearing, smell, taste, or bodily sensation. Positive hallucinations imply that the patient is experiencing something that is not real; For example, if a patient does see a rose growing from the ground, it is a positive visual hallucination. Negative hallucinations imply that the patient is unable to experience what is actually there; For example, if the patient does not see the chair in front of him, it is a negative visual hallucination. Both positive and negative hallucinations can deepen the patient’s hypnotic experience.
(2) Anesthesia and analgesia :
Anesthesia refers to sensory blockage or temporary disappearance, and pain relief is the feeling of alleviating or relieving pain. In the years when anesthetic drugs were not invented, many surgical and dental treatments used hypnosis to perform anesthesia. Some hypnotists in the hypnotized case enter the hypnosis state, will use the nail to pinch the main skin, causing obvious pinch marks on the skin, and the case does not feel pain.
(3) Dissociation Hypnosis (Physical or psychological dissociation) :
The arm levitation invented by Dr. Erickson is a typical dissociation phenomenon in which the patient’s arm moves in an unconsciously controlled manner; the patient knows that it is his own arm, but it feels like the arm has its own consciousness. During hypnosis, patients often “suddenly think of one thing in the past” or “suddenly feel that they have arrived somewhere.”
(4) Ideomotor behavior and ideosensory behavior :
Ideomotor behavior is the idea that triggers an actual action, such as thinking “yes” in the heart, and inadvertently nodding. Ideosensory behavior is the idea that triggers a feeling, such as thinking that the sun is shining on the body and feeling warm. During hypnosis, the hypnotist can establish an act of intent as a means of communicating with the patient. The hypnotist suggests that when the patient answers the question, he uses the index finger, middle finger and thumb to indicate the answer to “yes”, “no” and “unsure”.
(5) Automatic behavior :
Including automatic writing and automatic drawing. In the Automatic behavior, the hand of the pen makes the action of writing and drawing by dissociating. The hypnotist asks the patient to express the forgotten memory or thoughts in the subconscious by automated behavior under hypnosis.
(6) Posthypnotic suggestion :
The hypnotist suggests that the patient will respond specifically to the hypnotist’s specific signal after the end of hypnosis. In hypnosis, the hypnotist suggests that when the hypnotist takes the patient’s shoulder, the patient will go into hypnosis again; or if the hypnotist clap his hand, the patient will start dancing.
(7) Catalepsy :
This hypnotic phenomenon refers to the suppression of voluntary movements. The patient is unable to control the movements of the muscles of the body. As the hypnosis deepens, the range of uncontrollable muscles increases, for example, from the muscles of the eyelids, the muscles of the arms, the muscles of the thighs, and finally the muscles of the whole body. When the patient enters a mild hypnotic state, the hypnotist gives hypnotic Suggestions that the eyes cannot be opened, and then asks the patient to try to open the eyes. If the patient is unable to open his eyes, the hypnotic experience can be deepened. Then ask client to stretch out his arm. Imagine that the arm becomes so stiff that it can’t be bent because it is tied to a piece of wood. Then ask client to try bending the arm. If the patient is unable to bend the arm, the hypnotic experience can be further deepened and the patient is then encouraged to relax, allowing all the muscles of the body to relax so that they cannot stand up. If the patient cannot stand, the hypnotic experience is further deepened.
Some hypnotists will further lay the patient on the ground, suggesting that all the muscles in the patient’s body have become stiff and that the person is like a stone. When the patient’s whole body becomes tight, ask others to lift the patient up, put the head and feet on two chairs respectively, the body is suspended, ask a person to sit or stand on the patient again, call “Iron plate bridge”. Both the patient and the bystander experience this process and, of course, become more convinced that the patient has been hypnotized. But the “Iron plate bridge” process is risky, and if the patient suddenly leaves hypnosis in the middle of the process, he or she will be injured, so don’t try it easily.
(8) Time distortion :
Time can be lengthened or shortened. The hypnotist may suggest to the patient that the whole process took only 10 minutes, but it actually took more than half an hour.
(9) Amnesia and Hypermneșia :
The hypnotist can suggest that the patient has forgotten the entire hypnosis process, or a small part of what happened, causing hypnosis of amnesia. The patient may also vividly recall the memory he has forgotten.
(10) Age regression and age progression :
When Age regression, the patient is so engrossed in the past memory that it seems to relive it. Age progression is when the patient is fully integrated into the future experience as if it were happening.
In traditional hypnosis, the testing and appearance of hypnotic phenomena are used to confirm and deepen hypnosis. Most of the judgment of hypnotic phenomenon will take the form of all or nothing, if the occurrence of hallucinations is there, there is no occurrence is not. Everyone experiences different kinds of hypnosis. Some people can experience several kinds of hypnosis, while others can only experience one. Hypnotist through the process of hypnosis, understand the patient most ability to experience the hypnotic phenomenon, can be used as a treatment strategy, according to the patient experience hypnotic phenomenon ability to help patients. If a patient with a pain problem is prone to hallucinations, a hypnotist can suggest that the patient has hallucinations of pain disappearing. If amnesia is easily experienced, the hypnotist may suggest that the patient forget the pain. Therefore, the patient’s ability to experience hypnosis can be used as a therapeutic resource.